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Citing Sources with APA                                                                                                                                

What is APA?

APA formatting gives credit to the authors whose information you use in your writing. To avoid plagiarism, you must use the most important parts of APA formatting: in-text citations and references. This page provides a quick overview on how to cite your sources. 

Citation Machine is a simple tool that will create your in-text citations, reference citations, and reference pages.

Learn how to use citation machine by reviewing our tutorial:

This page will teach you how to format your paper in APA style.

For starters, here is a template you can use to help you format your paper:


Narrative Format:

In your online classes, you facilitator may ask you to write an essay in "APA narrative format." Here are a few tips:

Point of View
APA writing is from the first person perspective, such as “I researched…”, or the third person perspective, like “Survey results showed…” If you are trying to decide between first and third person, use whichever one helps you to communicate or whichever one your professor prefers.

Whether you use the first or third person perspective, the active voice is best. The active voice is simple and direct. A sentence in the active voice is “I researched information literacy.” This is the opposite of the passive voice which can sound wordy. An example of a passive voice sentence is “It is concluded that research has been performed.”

A Scholarly Tone of Voice
When you’re writing for school it’s important to use the appropriate tone of voice. Your tone of voice can be heard in the words that you choose. Carefully pick the words you use, just like how you would carefully choose what you wear to a formal event. A good example of a scholarly tone can be found in your textbook or journal articles. You will notice that it doesn’t sound like the way you talk with friends. For example, a scholarly tone doesn’t use contractions, such as “didn’t,” or slang, such as “her ideas were weird.”

A scholarly tone has clear sentences that explain your point. You can hear the tone of your writing by reading it out loud. After you read it, ask yourself: when my teacher reads my Complete assignment or paper will she know what I mean?

Clear and Concise
As you write and edit, work to create sentences that are clear and concise. Keep these tips in mind:

  • Avoid saying too much in one sentence. You can shorten long sentences by deleting unnecessary words and repetitive phrases.
  • Be specific instead of vague in your descriptions. For example, instead of writing “with reference to the fact” you could simply say “concerning.”
  • Be sure to use accurate and balanced language when you consider a variety of perspectives. As you choose words be particularly aware of racial, ethnic, gender, or religious bias.
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Cite it!

Select the type of source you are citing: 

 

What type of article are you citing? Select one.

General Format:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page number)

Reference:

 Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal
         Title,Volume(issue), page range. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL
         of journal home page [if available].  

Example:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Pettigrew, 2009)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Pettigrew, 2009, p. 61)

Reference:

Pettigrew, T. F. (2009). Secondary transfer effect of contact: Do intergroup contact
         effects spread to noncontacted outgroups? Social Psychology, 40(2), 55-65.
         doi:10.1027/1864-9335.40.2.55

General Format:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname & Author Surname, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname & Author Surname, Year, page number)

Reference:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial.
         Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume(issue),
         page range. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL of journal home
         page [if available].  

Example 1:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Paterson & Thorne, 2003)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Paterson & Thorne, 2003, p. 30)

Reference:

Paterson, B. L., & Thorne, S. (2003). Enhancing the evaluation of nursing care
        effectiveness. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 35(3), 26-38.

Example 2:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Sillick & Schutte, 2006)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Sillick & Schutte, 2006, p. 43)

Reference:

Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem
        mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. 
        E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from
        http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap

General Format:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname, Author Surname, & Author Surname, Year)

NOTE: Although the first in-text citation for a work with three to five authors/editors includes all of the names of the authors/editors, subsequent citations include only the first author's/editor's surname, followed by et al. and the year.

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Author Surname, & Author Surname, Year, page number)

Reference:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. 
         Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article
         title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume(issue), page range.
         doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL of journal home page [if
         available].  

Example 1:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Westhues, Lafrance, & Schmidt, 2001)

NOTE: A subsequent citation would appear as (Westhues et al., 2001)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Westhues, Lafrance, & Schmidt, 2001, p. 40)

Reference:

Westhues, A., Lafrance, J., & Schmidt, G. (2001). A SWOT analysis of social
        work education in Canada. Social Work Education, 20(1), 35-
        56. doi:10.1080/02615470020028364

Example 2:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Brinkworth, Noakes, Buckley, Keogh, & Clifton, 2009)

NOTE: A subsequent citation would appear as (Brinkworth et al., 2009)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Brinkworth, Noakes, Buckley, Keogh, & Clifton, 2009, p. 27)

Reference:

Brinkworth, G. D., Noakes, M., Buckley, J. D., Keogh, J. B., & Clifton, P. M.
         (2009). Long-term effects of a very-low-carbohydrate weight loss diet
         compared with an isocaloric low-fat diet after 12 mo. American Journal of
         Clinical Nutrition, 90(1), 23-32. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.27326

General Format:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname et al., Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname et al., Year, page number)

Reference:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial.
         Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author
         Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second
         Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title:
         Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume(issue), page range. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx [if
         available] OR Retrieved from URL of journal home page [if available].
 
NOTE: If an article has more than seven authors, list the names ofthe first six authors followed by ... and then the last author's name in the reference entry (p. 198).

Example:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Dietz et al., 2007)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Dietz et al., 2007, p. 1517)

Reference:

Dietz, P. M., Williams, S. B., Callaghan, W. M., Bachman, D. J., Whitlock, E. P., &
          Hornbrook, M. C. (2007). Clinically identified maternal depression before,
          during, and after pregnancies ending in live births. American Journal of
          Psychiatry, 164(10), 1515-1520. Retrieved from
          http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/

General Format:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page number)

Reference:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title:
        Subtitle. Magazine Title, Volume(issue), page range. Retrieved from URL
        of magazine home page [if viewed online].  

Example 1:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Henry & Mehta, 1990)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Henry & Mehta, 1990, p. 30)

Reference:

​​Henry, W. A., & Mehta, N. S. (1990, April 9). Beyond the melting pot. Time,
        135, 28-31.

Example 2:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Kuttner, 2003)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Kutner, 2003, p. 26)

Reference:

Kuttner, R. (2003, September 8). The great American pension-fund
        robbery. BusinessWeek, 24-26. Retrieved from
        http://www.businessweek.com/

General Format:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page number)

Reference:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title:
        Subtitle. Newspaper Title, page range. Retrieved from URL [if viewed
        online]  

Example 1:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Wallace, 2007)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Wallace, 2007, p. A8)

Reference:

Wallace, K. (2007, December 4). Passport applicant finds massive privacy
        breach. The Globe and Mail, pp. A1, A8.

Example 2:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Severson & Martin, 2009)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Severson & Martin, 2009)

Reference:

Severson, K. &, Martin, A. (2009, March 3). It's organic, but does that mean it's
        safer? The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

General Format:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname [of Chapter or Article], Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname [of Chapter or Article], Year, page number)

Reference:

Author Surname [of Chapter or Article], First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article
        or chapter title. In Editor First Initial. Second Initial. Surname (Ed.), Book title:
       Subtitle (pp. page range of article or chapter). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Lawrence & Dodds, 2003)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Lawrence & Dodds, 2003, p. 526)

Reference:

Lawrence, J. A., &  Dodds, A. E. (2003). Goal-directed activities and life-span
        development. In J. Valsiner & K. Connolly (Eds.), Handbook of
        developmental psychology (pp. 517-533). London, England: Sage
        Publications.
 
Are you citing your attend or read section? Select one.

General Format:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year)

Reference:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Lecture Title[Format].
        Retrieved from Institution Course name Blackboard site.

Example:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Bethel University, 2010)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Bethel University, 2010)

Reference:

Bethel University. (2010). Orientation to Online Learning[Video]. Retrieved from
         https://www.betheluniversityonline.net/.

General Format:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, p. X)

Reference:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle.Retrieved
        from https://www.betheluniversityonline.net

Example 1:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Bethel University, 2012)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Bethel University, 2012, p.1)

Reference:

Bethel University. (2012). Awesome Information. Retrieved from
         https://www.betheluniversityonline.net/.

Example 2:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Kinicki & Williams, 2012)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Kinicki & Williams, 2012, p. 36)

Reference:

Kinicki, A., & Williams, B. (2012). Management: a practical introduction. Retrieved
         from https://betheluniversityonline.net.
 
What type of book are you citing? Select one.

General Format:

The general format below refers to a book with one author. 

If you are dealing with one editor instead of one author, you would simply insert the editor's name in the place where the author's name is now, followed by "(Ed.)" without the quotation marks. The rest of the format would remain the same.
 
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page number)

Reference:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle.Place of
        Publication: Publisher.

Example:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Franks, 2005)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Franks, 2005, p. 148)

Reference:

Franks, A. (2005). Margaret Sanger's eugenic legacy: The control of
        female fertility. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company.

General Format:

 The general format below refers to a book with two authors. 
 
If you are dealing with two editors instead of two authors, you would simply insert the names of the editors into the place where the authors' names are now, followed by "(Eds.)" without the quotation marks (see the Example).  The rest of the format would remain the same. 
 
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname & Author Surname, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname & Author Surname, Year, page number)

Reference:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial.
        Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Burley & Harris, 2002)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Burley & Harris, 2002, p. 153)

Reference:

Burley, J., & Harris, J. (Eds.). (2002). A companion to genethics. Malden, MA:
         Blackwell.

General Format:

 
 The general format below refers to a book with three authors.  For a book with four or five authors, you would add the additional authors' names after the first three.
 
If you are dealing with a book that has three to five editors instead of authors, you would simply insert the names of the editors into the place where the authors' names are now, followed by "(Eds.)" without the quotation marks (as per the example).  The rest of the format would remain the same. 
 
 
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname, Author Surname, & Author Surname, Year)

NOTE: Although the first in-text citation for a work with three to five authors/editors includes all of the names of the authors/editors, subsequent citations include only the first author's/editor's surname, followed by et al. and the year.

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Author Surname, & Author Surname, Year, page number)

Reference:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second
        Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title:
        Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Johnson, Roberts, & Worell, 1999)

NOTE: A subsequent citation would appear as (Johnson et al., 1999)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Johnson, Roberts, & Worell, 1999, p. 72)

Reference:

Johnson, N. G., Roberts, M. C., & Worell, J. (Eds.). (1999). Beyond appearance:
        A new look at adolescent girls. Washington, DC: American Psychological
        Association.

General Format:

 
 
 The general format below refers to a book with six or more authors.
 
If you are dealing with a book that has six or more editors instead of authors, you would simply insert the names of the editors into the place where the authors' names are now, followed by "(Eds.)" without the quotation marks (as per the example).  The rest of the format would remain the same.
 
 
 
 
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(First Author Surname, et al., Year)

NOTE: For all in-text citations for a work with six or more authors/editors, include only the name of the first listed author, followed by et al. and the year.

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(First Author Surname, et al., Year, page number)

Reference:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second
        Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First
        Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author
        Surname, First Initial. Second Initial.,& Author Surname, First Initial. Second
        Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher.
 
NOTE: APA allows for up to seven authors' names in a reference list citation. If there are eight or more authors, list the first six, followed by three ellipses then the last author's name.

Example:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Johnson, et al., 1999)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Johnson, et al., 1999, p. 72)

Reference:

Johnson, N. G., Roberts, M. C., Smith, R. E., Mitchell, D. E., Jones, H. B.,
         Pickens, G. S., & Worell, J. (Eds.). (1999). Beyond appearance: A new look
         at adolescent girls. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
 
Rosenbloom, M. J., Sullivan, E. V., Sassoon, S. A., O'Reilly, A., Fama, R.,
         Kemper, C. A.,...Pfefferbaum, A. (2007). Alcoholism, HIV infection, and their
         comorbity: Factors affecting self-rated health-rated quality of life. Journal of
         Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 68(1), 115-125.

General Format:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Book title [usually shortened], Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Book title [usually shortened], Year, page number)

Reference:

Book title: Subtitle. (Year). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Merriam-Webster's, 2005)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Merriam-Webster's, 2005, p. 3)

Reference:

Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). (2005). Springfield, MA:
        Merriam-Webster. 

General Format:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page number)

Reference:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title:
       Subtitle [Version]. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL of the home
       page of the e-book provider.

Example:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Ochs, 2004)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Ochs, 2004, p. 55)

Reference:

Ochs, S. (2004). A history of nerve functions: From animal spirits to molecular
         mechanisms [ebrary Reader version]. Retrieved
         from http://www.ebrary.com/corp/
 
What type of website are you citing? Select one.

General Format:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page or paragraph number [if available])

Reference:

Personal or Corporate Author. (Last update or copyright date; if not known, put
        n.d.). Title of specific document. Retrieved from URL of specific document

Example:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Apple, 2016)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Apple, 2016, para. 1)

Reference:

Apple, Inc. (2016). Environmental Responsibility. Retrieved from
         http://www.apple.com/environment/

General Format:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

("Title of specific document," Year)

NOTE: If the title of a document is long, use a shortened version for the in-text citations.

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

("Title of specific document," Year, page or paragraph number [if available])

Reference:

Title of specific document. (Last update or copyright date; if not known, put n.d.).
         In Title of website. Retrieved from URL of specific document

Example:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

("Neurology," n.d.)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

("Neurology", n.d.)

Reference:

Neurology. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved August 8, 2007, from
         http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Neurology

General Format:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname OR Screen name, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname OR Screen name, Year)

Reference:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. OR Author screen name {as it
        appears on the blog}. (Year, Month Day {of post}). Title of specific post [Web
        log post]. Retrieved from URL of specific post
NOTE: If it is the original blog post use [Web log post].  If it is a reply or comment made to the original post, use [Web log comment].

Example:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(MiddleKid, 2007)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(MiddleKid, 2007)

Reference:

MiddleKid. (2007, January 22). Re: The unfortunate prerequisites and
         consequences of partitioning your mind [Web log comment]. Retrieved from
         http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2007/01/the_unfortunate_
         prerequisites.php

General Format:

NOTE: If the author's name is not provided, use the title of the entry at the front of the citation or reference. For example: (feminism, 2003).

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page number [if available])

Reference:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year; if not known, put n.d.). Title of
        entry. In Editor First Initial. Second Initial. Surname (Ed.), Title of reference
        work (edition, Vol. #). Retrieved from URL

Example:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Graham, 2005)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Graham, 2005)

Reference:

Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia
        of philosophy (Fall 2007 ed.). Retrieved from
        http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/behaviorism/

General Format:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page or paragraph number [if available])

Reference:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Last update or copyright date; if not
        known, put n.d.). Title of specific document. Retrieved from Name of
        University website: URL of specific document

Example:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Johnson & Becker, n.d.)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Johnson & Becker, n.d.)

Reference:

Johnson, K. A., & Becker, J. A. (n.d.). The whole brain atlas. Retrieved from
         Harvard University Medical School website:
         http://www.med.harvard.edu/AANLIB/
 
Are you citing an image, video, or audio clip? Select one.

General Format:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Producer Surname & Director Surname, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Producer Surname & Director Surname, Year)

Reference:

Producer Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Producer), & Director Surname,
          First Initial. Second Initial. (Director). (Year). Title of movie [Format e.g.
          Motion picture or DVD]. Country where movie was produced: Name of
          Studio.

Example:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Davidson & Davidson, 1999)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Davidson & Davidson, 1999)

Reference:

Davidson, F. (Producer), & Davidson, J. (Director). (1999). B. F. Skinner: A
          fresh appraisal [Motion picture]. United States: Davidson Films.

General Format:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname OR Screen name, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname OR Screen name, Year)

Reference:

        Month Day {of video post}). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL of
        specific video

Example:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Norton, 2006)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Norton, 2006)

Reference:

Norton, R. (2006, November 4). How to train a cat to operate a light switch [Video
          file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vja83KLQXZs

General Format:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year)

Reference:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. OR Author screen name. (Producer).
        (Year, Month Day {of podcast}). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved
        from URL

Example:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Van Nuys, 2007)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Van Nuys, 2007)

Reference:

Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast].
          Retrieved from http://www.shrinkrapradio.com/

General Format:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Writer Surname, Year, track number)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Writer Surname, Year, track number)

Reference:

Writer Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (copyright year). Title of song
         [Recoded by First Initial. Second Initial. Artist Surname if different from
         writer]. On Title of album [medium of recoding: CD, record, cassette, etc.].
         Location: Label. (date of recording if different from song copyright date).

Example:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Thomas, 1996, track 2)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Thomas, 1996, track 2)

Reference:

Thomas, G. (1996). Breath. On Didgeridoo: Ancient sound of the
         future [CD]Oxnard, CA: Aquarius International Music.

General Format:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Artist Surname, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Artist Surname, Year)

Reference:

Artist Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title of the artwork [Format].
          Retrieved from URL

Example:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Di Carpi, 1540)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Di Carpi, 1540)

Reference:

Di Carpi, G. (1540). The holy family [image]. Retrieved from
           http://www.getty.edu/art/collections/objects/o707.html

General Format (Figure from a Book):

Caption under Figure: 

Figure X. Descriptive phrase that serves as title and description. Reprinted [or adapted] from Book Title (page number), by Author First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, Year, Place of Publication: Publisher. Copyright [Year] by the Name of Copyright Holder. Reprinted [or adapted] with permission.

Example: 

Figure 1. Short-term memory test involving pictures. Reprinted from Short-term Memory Loss (p. 73), by K. M. Pike, 2008, New York, NY: Mackerlin Press. Copyright  2008 by the Association for Memory Research. Reprinted with permission.

General Format 2 (Figure from a Journal Article):

Caption under Figure: 

Figure X. Descriptive phrase that serves as title and description. Reprinted [or adapted] from “Title of Article,” by Author First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, Year, Journal Title, Volume(issue), page number. Copyright [Year] by the Name of Copyright Holder. Reprinted [or adapted] with permission.

Example: 

Figure 1. Schematic drawings of a bird's eye view of the table (a) and the test phase of the choice task (b). Numbers represent the dimensions in centimeters. Adapted from "Visual Experience Enhances Infants' Use of Task-Relevant Information in an Action Task," by S.-h. Wang and L. Kohne, 2007, Developmental Psychology, 43, p. 1515. Copyright 2003 by the American Psychological Association.

General Format 3 (Figure from a Website):

Caption under Figure: 

Figure X. Descriptive phrase that serves as title and description. Reprinted [or adapted] from Title of Website, by Author First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, Year, Retrieved from URL. Copyright [year] by the Name of Copyright Holder. Reprinted [or adapted] with permission.

Example: 

Figure 1. An example of the cobra yoga position. Reprinted from List of Yoga Postures, In Wikipedia, n.d., Retrieved October 28, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki /List_of_yoga_postures. Copyright 2007 by Joseph Renger. Reprinted with permission.

 
What type of government or legal publication are you citing? Select one.

General Format:

In-Text Citation:

(Name v. Name, Year)

Reference:

Name v. Name, Volume Source Page (Date).

Example:

In-Text Citation:

(United States v. Lane, 1986).

Reference:

United States v. Lane, 474 U.S. 438 (1986).

General Format:

In-Text Citation:

(Name v. Name, Year)

Reference:

Name v. Name, Volume Reporter abbreviation Page (Court abbreviation Year).

Example:

In-Text Citation:

(Smith v. Doe, 2014).

Reference:

People v. Armour, 590 S.W. 61 (Tenn. 1999)

General Format:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Government Author, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Government Author, Year, page or paragraph number [if available])

Reference:

Government Name. Name of Government Agency. (Year). Title of document:
         Subtitle (Report No. xxx [if available]). Retrieved from URL of specific
         document

Example:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003)

Reference:

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health,
          National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma:
          A guide for schools (NIH publication No. 02-2650).Retrieved from
          http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/lung/asthma/asth_sch.pdf

General Format:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Name of Company, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Name of Company, Year, page number)

Reference:

Name of company. (Publication Date). Form or filing title. Available/Retrieved from
          URL

Example:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Microsoft, 2005)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Microsoft, 2005, p. 5)

Reference:

Microsoft. (2005, September 25). Form 10-Q. Available from
          http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/37996/000003799613000014/
          f1231201-10k.htm#sE539E4887CCAF917D442DB5B89B820D3
 
What type of personal communication are you citing? Select one.

General Format:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Interviewee First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, personal communication, Month Day, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Interviewee First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, personal communication, Month Day, Year)

Reference:

NOTE: Personal interviews are not included in the reference list because they do not provide recoverable data. Cite them in text only.

Example:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Y. Martel, personal communication, April 15, 2005)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Y. Martel, personal communication, April 15, 2005)

Reference:

Not included.

General Format:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Sender First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, personal communication, Month Day, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Sender First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, personal communication, Month Day, Year)

Reference:

NOTE: E-mails are not included in the reference list because they do not provide recoverable data.  

Example:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(L. Hatcher, personal communication, March 27, 2009)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(L. Hatcher, personal communication, March 27, 2009)

Reference:

Not included.

General Format:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year)

Reference:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Lecture title [Format]Retrieved from Institution Course name Blackboard site.

Example:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Bethel University, 2010)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Bethel University, 2010)

Reference:

Bethel University. (2010). Orientation to Online Learning [Video]. Retrieved from https://www.betheluniversityonline.net/.
 
What other type of source are you citing? Select one.

General Format:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Name of the Book (often abbreviated) Chapter:Verse [if applicable]
Version being Cited [if applicable])

NOTE: If you are only using one version of a particular work, you
only need to include the Version in the first in-text citation (p. 179).

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Name of the Book (often abbreviated) Chapter:Verse [if applicable] Version being Cited [if applicable]

Reference:

NOTE: Bible, Sacred, or Classical works (e.g. religious texts) are commonly only cited in-text and not in the references section.

Example 1:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(1 Cor. 13:1 Revised Standard Version)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(1 Cor. 13:1 Revised Standard Version)

Reference:

Not included.

Example 2:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Qur'an 5:3-4)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Qur'an 5:3-4)

Reference:

Not included.

General Format:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname, Year qtd. as cited in Author Surname [of the source you read], Year)

Reference:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial [of the source you read]. (Year). Book 
       title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example 1:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

Fong’s 1987 study (as cited in Bertram, 1996) found that older students’ memory can be as good as that of young people, but this depends on how memory is tested.

Reference:

Do not include Fong (1987) in your References; do include Bertram (1996).

APA does not have specific guidelines for referencing a case study. The format depends on where the case study was found. For example, if you found the case study in a journal article by one author, follow the APA guidelines to cite a journal article by one author.

General Format:

If the author of a press release is not clearly identified assume that it was written by the organization that it is about.

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Last Name, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Last Name, Year, paragraph number)

Reference:

Author Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title [Press release].
         Retrieved from web address.

Example:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Franks, 2005)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Franks, 2005, para. 148)

Reference:

American Psychological Association. (2010). Today’s superheroes send wrong
         image to boys, say researchers [Press release]. Retrieved from
         http://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2010/08/macho-stereotype-
         unhealthy.aspx

General Format:

In many cases, the author of the SWOT Analysis is a corporation. 

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Last Name, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Last Name, Year, page number)

Reference:

Author Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title of report. Retrieved
        from URL 

Example:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(GlobalData, 2009)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(GlobalData, 2009, p. 1)

Reference:

GlobalData. (2015). Adidas AG. Retrieved from
         http://bi.galegroup.com=company^462866